It doesn’t necessarily take a large quantity of a substance to have a significant effect. Contaminants in water and greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere are commonly measured in parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb). In this activity, students explore how many dilutions of a pure substance (food coloring) are needed to produce a 1 part per million concentration.
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Students play the role of nitrogen atoms travelling through the nitrogen cycle to gain understanding of the varied pathways through the cycle and the relevance of nitrogen to living things.
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This article and key from the USGS explains the functions of topographic maps, and the symbols found on them.
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This guide helps pre-college teachers use the geological map of California in their classroom. The beautiful maps found here can give valuable information when correctly interpreted. Explore the features of the maps and ask questions to stimulate exploration and curiosity.
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This California Geological Survey bulletin describes the state rock, serpentine.
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Learn about the many Earth systems in this interactive, web-based textbook. Chapters include matter, dynamic systems like volcanoes and plate tectonics, hydrosphere, atmosphere, the local space system, and Earth history.